Как надо обращаться с деньгами

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как обращаться с деньгамиГоворят, что хорошая зарплата — это когда следующую уже получил, а предыдущую потратить еще не успел. На деле же часто случается так, что люди с довольно скромными доходами с легкостью укладываются в рамки семейного бюджета, не чувствуя при этом себя в чем-то ущемленными. В то же время тем, кто зарабатывает в два-три раза больше, приходится регулярно занимать деньги. Попробуем разобраться, как надо обращаться с деньгами, чтобы на все хватало и даже получалось делать сбережения.

Основой рационального обращения с финансами являются анализ, планирование и инвестирование. На первый взгляд может показаться, что к домашнему бюджета это неприменимо. Разве можно анализировать или инвестировать, когда денег еле хватает или вовсе не хватает на повседневные мелкие нужды? Можно! И обязательно нужно.

Анализ доходов, расходов и активов

деньгиЕсли вы решили освоить правильное обращение с личными или семейными финансовыми средствами, начнните с анализа своих доходов, трат и активов.
С доходами обычно все более-менее понятно. Тем не менее, стоит взять лист бумаги и записать абсолютно все свои ежемесячные и ежегодные денежные поступления. Чаще всего, говоря о доходах, люди учитывают только свою зарплату. Это является большой ошибкой. Вспомните все премии, подарки, субсидии, бонусы. Только имея максимально четкое представление о своих доходах можно приступать к анализу трат.

Запишите также все свои расходы. В идеале нужна статистика за год, но можно начать с ежемесячных трат. Чтобы узнать, сколько на что у вас уходит, поначалу придется записывать абсолютно все, даже самые мелкие покупки и прочие расходы. Разбейте расходы по категориям среди которых обязательно должны быть ткие, «как питание», «развлечения» и обязательные платежи. Подумайте, как можно, не снижая при этом качества жизни уменьшить свои траты. К примеру, если большую долю занимают расходы на продукты, возможно стоит отследить, что из нескоропортящихся товаров приобретается чаще всего, и закупать это оптом по более выгодным расценкам. А может, вы слишком много тратите на полуфабрикаты? Оцените, что для вас ценнее: свободное время или возможность сэкономить. Расставьте приоритеты в списке своих регулярных трат. Так вам легче будет понять, на чем можно в случае чего начать экономить.

Если с доходами-расходами все более-менее понятно, то с активами немного сложнее. Ну какие могут быть активы у среднестатистической семьи? Если хорошенько подумать, то их можно найти не так уж и мало. Но ваша задача состоит в том, чтобы выделить среди них те, которые можно использовать более рационально. К примеру, у вас есть личный автомобиль, который используется лишь для поездок на дачу пару раз в месяц в летнее время. Посчитайте все ежегодные расходы на свое авто. А теперь прикиньте, сколько раз можно было бы съездить на дачу, вызвав на эти деньги такси. А если продать машину? Сколько лет тогда вы сможете пользоваться услугами таксистов? А может быть вы сейчас находитесь в сложной финансовой ситуации, но при этом живете в просторной квартире в центре города? Что если сдать свое жилье и снимать аналогичное подальше от центра? Даже с учетом расходов на переезд такой вариант может оказаться довольно выгодным.
Но если столь крупных активов нет, это не значит, что вам нечего проанализировать. Просто уровень и масштабы будут иными. Проведите инвентаризацию у себя дома. Нужен ли вам этот кухонный комбайн, подаренный некогда родителями на свадьбу? Если вы не пользуетесь чем-то уже более года, то, вероятнее всего, вещь вам не нужна и просто занимает место. Так может лучше продать все лишнее? Или обменять на что-то более нужное? Попробуйте.

Планирование в домашней бухгалтерии

Разобравшись с анализом, можно и нужно приступить к планированию.
Начните с планирования доходов, так как их запланировать легче, особенно в том случае, если они достаточно стабильны и регулярны.
Теперь запланируйте свои расходы. При этом кроме ежемесячных придется учесть и ежегодные, такие, как налоги на недвижимость, страховые взносы, оплата учебы и прочее. Лучше всего разделить эти суммы на двенадцать месяцев, чтобы ежемесячно откладывать необходимую часть. Внесите в свой план также суммы на крупные покупки, на которые нужно копить более года. Не забудьте о непредвиденных расходах.

Оптимизация семейного бюджета

Как только вы запланируете все свои траты и поступления, стоит заняться оптимизацией. Хорошо, если удается найти дополнительные источники поступления денег. Увы, это не всегда реально. Поэтому необходимо пересмотреть траты. Помните, что если вы откажетесь от чего-то, то сможете позволить себе что-то другое, значит крайне важно правильно расставить приоритеты.
dengi_slyga_ili_hozyainНо не стоит при этом мыслить слишком узко. К примеру, если вы копите на машину, то приобретение, допустим, мультиварки отложит исполнение мечты о личном авто по  меньшей мере на пару недель. Но, с другой стороны — если это поможет освободить, предположим, 15 часов времени в месяц. Если половину этого времени вы потратите на то, чтобы связать на продажу шарф, написать пару дополнительных статей за деньги, подработать тайным покупателем или отводить ребенка в кружок при местном Доме творчества, отказавшись от платных курсов рядом с домом, то и деньги на машину соберутся быстрее.
Не забывайте о личных предпочтениях. Для одной женщины важнее весь месяц пить дома самый простой чай, ради того, чтобы раз в неделю позволить себе пойти в кафе и выпить там чашечку самого дорогого чая. В то же время другая предпочтет пить дорогой чай ежедневно, но дома.
Проанализируйте цены на основные товары, которые вы покупаете регулярно. Возможно, стоит сменить бренд на более дешевый без потери качества, может быть лучше делать покупки в другом магазине. Пользуйтесь дисконтными картами и другими способами экономии.
Однако, не путайте экономию с перераспределением средств на текущие нужды. Если вы отказались на месяц от булочек, чтобы на непотраченные в кондитерской деньги купить юбку, это нельзя назвать экономией. Ведь в результате свободных денег у вас больше не стало.

Копим и инвестируем

копим деньгиЛюбой человек, даже на грани нищеты способен откладывать пять, а лучше десять процентов своих доходов. Главное, делать это сразу при получении денег. Всего за год таким образом у вас скопится сумма, превышающая ваш месячный доход. Не трогайте эти деньги. Они будут стабилизационным фондом. В случае, если вы заболеете, потеряете работу или при иных непредвиденных обстоятельствах вам уже не придется думать на что прожить, хотя бы, месяц. В дальнейшем эти деньги могут стать основой вашей финансовой свободы. Ведь они дадут возможность длительное время не думать о работе.

На что еще стоит откладывать деньги? Крупные покупки, поездки, лечение, обучение — это первое, что приходит в головую. И совершенно верно. При этом ставьте перед собой только реальные цели и не спешите достичь их максимально быстро. Не копите сразу на много крупных нужд, действуйте постепенно.

Балуйте себя. Нельзя отказывать себе в мелких радостях. Зачем нужны деньги, если жизнь неинтересна. Рано или поздно это может свести на нет всю вашу экономию. Выделяйте также ежемесячно процентов пять от общего бюджета на то, чтобы себя порадовать. И обязательно тратьте эти деньги каждый месяц. Старайтесь помимо этого искать бесплатные развлечения. Пробежка по парку может оказаться приятнее тренажеров в душном зале, а игра с детьми в снежки может быть гораздо увлекательнее пейнтбола. Маникюр может быть не просто недорогим, а бесплатным, если сделать его у ученика.
Также не забывайте о скидках на развлечения.

Чтобы ваши накопления росли быстрее, не нужно держать их дома. Даже если вы просто отнесете их в банк, это поможет уберечься от инфляции. По мере роста вашего благосостояния неплохо было бы освоить и другие инвестиционные инструменты. Заставьте финансы работать на себя.
И обязательно верьте в то, что все будет именно так, как нужно вам.

Посмотрите также видео о секретах правильного обращения с деньгами!

 

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