Витамин С (аскорбиновая кислота)

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vitamin_C_pod_microscopomВитамин С называется также противоцинготным витамином, так как излечивает цингу — заболевание, развивающееся вследствие недостаточного содержания этого витамина в организме. Цинга (по-латыни — «скорбут») была известна человечеству гораздо раньше, чем выяснилась причина ее возникновения. Отдельные упоминания о данном заболевании имелись еще у Гиппократа — ученого, жившего более 2000 лет назад. Некоторые сведения о цинге имеются и у Плиния, любителя-естествоиспытателя (24—79 гг. христианской эры). Согласно его данным, римские легионы под командованием Цезаря Германика, находясь за Рейном, сильно страдали от заболевания, судя по описанию, напоминающего цингу.
Наиболее часто встречалась цинга в эпоху развития мореплавания, в различных экспедициях, поселениях, в воюющих армиях и т. д. В течение XV столетия предпринимались продолжительные морские путешествия, во время которых моряки были лишены на длительный срок не только свежих фруктов и овощей, но и свежего мяса, питаясь в пути преимущественно мукой и солониной.

10 августа 1519 г. испанское правительство отправило эскадру Магеллана в составе 5 кораблей в первое плавание вокруг света. Вот как описывает это путешествие Антонио Пигафеттав своем дневнике: «В продолжение трех месяцев и двадцати дней мы были лишены совершенно свежей пищи. Мы питались сухарями, ели воловью кожу, покрывающую гротгрей. У некоторых из экипажа верхние и нижние десны распухли до такой степени, что они не в состоянии б¬ли принимать какую бы то ни было пищу. От этой болезни умерло 19 человек. Из числа тридцати человек экипажа переболело двадцать пять».

Во время путешествий совершенно случайно находились и средства борьбы с цингой. Во время зимовки экспедиции одного из первых исследователей Канады Жака Кортье на реке св. Лаврентия среди участников вспыхнула цинга: из 103 человек команды 100 были тяжело больны, причем 25 человек из них умерли. В отчаянии моряки поставили на берегу изображение Христа и, распростершись перед ним в глубоком снегу, пели молебные и покаянные псалмы, но избавление от болезни не приходило. Случайно один из моряков узнал от индейца, что отвар из игл произрастающей здесь канадской сосны излечивает болезнь. Как только отвар стал употребляться, цинга исчезла в короткий срок.

Другой пример. На одном английском корабле, плывущем из Индии в Европу и груженном недозрелыми лимонами (лимоны обычно снимаются с деревьев еще зелеными и дозревают в пути), случилась авария, и корабль долго блуждал по океану. На корабле появилась цинга. В связи с недостатком пищи матросы подняли бунт на корабле, разбили ящики с лимонами и апельсинами и стали употреблять их в пищу. Спустя несколько дней после этого все больные почувствовали себя лучше, а вскоре и совсем поправились. В дальнейшем этого заболевания среди экипажа корабля не было.

produkti_soderjashie_vitamin_C

Особенно поучительным является кругосветное путешествие английской военной экспедиции Ричарда Вальтера (1741—1744). Цель ее заключалась в том, чтобы, обогнув мыс Горн (Южная Америка), войти в Тихий океан и нанести удар испанским колониям в Юго-Западной Америке. Ансон, являющийся участником этой экспедиции, пишет о вспыхнувшей среди экипажа цинге и большой смертности от нее. Из 1000 человек умерло 800. Спаслись лишь те, которые смогли пользоваться зеленью, в частности лимонами и апельсинами, имеющимися в большом количестве на острове Тиниана, куда прибыла экспедиция. Это дало возможность в 1747 г. английскому морскому врачу Линду доказать противоцинготное значение апельсинов и лимонов, после чего некоторые английские корабли дальнего плавания запасались ими во время плавания. Линд в 1752 г. впервые дал подробное описание признаков цинги.
В уставе военного флота, утвержденном Петром I (XVIII век), имелся специальный раздел о профилактике цинги, в котором говорилось об обязательном применении при дальних плаваниях настоев из сосновых шишек и различных трав. В 1750 г. ректор академической гимназии в Петербурге академик С. П. Крашенинников (1711—1755), сподвижник гениального Ломоносова, талантливый исследователь, пробывший на Камчатке около 4 лет, в своей книге «Описание земли Камчатки» писал: «Вящшая в сланце доброта, что им пользуются от цинготной болезни с желаемым успехом, в чем вся морская экспедиция свидетель, ибо бывшие при оной служители никаких почти других лекарств для лечения объявленной болезни не принимали, кроме сланцевого дерева».

В 1785 г. наш соотечественник академик Петр Симон Паллас в «Описании растений государства Российского» писал: «Собираемые по концам веток молодые сосновые и кедровые вершинки похваляются от всех наших промышленников в Сибири и мореходов как лучшее противоцинготное и бальзамическое средство и составляют в лечебной науке преизрядное от цинготных болезней лекарство. Таковых сосновых вершинок вывозится из государства Российского в иностранные аптеки великое количество».

26 июля 1803 г. была предпринята кругосветная экспедиция в составе двух кораблей под руководством русского мореплавателя Крузенштерна. Во время своего длительного путешествия (1803—1806) Крузенштерн посетил Камчатку и Петропавловск, где среди местных жителей и матросов обнаружил много случаев заболевания цингой. Причина заключалась в том, что в течение 8 месяцев люди питались исключительно сушеной рыбой, солониной, сушеным мясом и болтушкой из ржаной муки. Крузенштерн научил местных жителей употреблять в пищу дикорастущую зелень, имеющуюся здесь в изобилии, как-то: дикий чеснок, горох, сельдерей и ягоды. Гарнизону Петропавловска он посоветовал запастись на зиму картофелем, кислой капустой, свеклой и дикорастущей зеленью.

Следует упомянуть о кругосветном путешествии русских моряков под руководством М. П. Лазарева и Ф. Ф. Беллинсгаузена (1819—1821). Экспедиция была образцово подготовлена. Помимо больших запасов различного продовольствия и разнообразной одежды, было взято множество бочек со специальным экстрактом из хвои, противоцинготное действие которого до сих пор признается наукой.
Всего на двух кораблях отправлялось в плавание 189 человек, в том числе два врача, которым надлежало, как гласила инструкция, обеспечить «неусыпное попечение о сохранении здоровья человека». В одном из своих писем М. П. Лазарев пишет: «После 138-дневного плавания не только не лишились мы ни одного человека, но не имели больных и даже признаков скорбута».

Наконец, заслуживает внимания работа П. Вишневского, который в своей книге «Опыт морской военной гигиены, или описание средств, способствующих к сохранению здоровья людей, служащих на море» (1820) писал: «… особенное или специфическое действие некоторых веществ, служащих к поправлению цинготного худосочия, удостоверило также в том, что есть какое-то начало в самих диетических средствах и в особенности из растительного царства получаемых». Работа его замечательна тем, что он еще задолго до Н. И. Лунина без экспериментальных наблюдений высказывал мысль о существовании в продуктах какого-то противоцинготного вещества.

vitamin_c

Цинга наблюдалась не только во время морских путешествий, экспедиций, но часто возникала она и в армиях, особенно воюющих. Великий русский полководец А. В. Суворов в целях предупреждения цинги в своих войсках специально издал в 1793 г. «Правило медицинским чинам», в котором рекомендует ряд ценных мероприятий.
На протяжении XIX столетия в воюющих армиях наблюдались вспышки цинги (армия Наполеона 1812 г., гарнизон Севастополя 1855 г., армии Северо-американских Соединенных Штатов 1861 —1865 гг.). Жестоко страдали от цинги и осажденные войска Парижа во время франко-прусской войны в 1870 г.

Во время русско-японской войны при осаде Порт-Артура японскими войсками, когда иссякли запасы картофеля и капусты и солдаты питались только хлебом и рисом, также появилась эпидемия цинги, охватившая почти половину осажденного гарнизона в количестве около 17 000 человек. Среди же японских солдат, осаждавших Порт-Артур, появилось заболевание бери-бери, являющееся, как и цинга, авитаминозом.

Случаи множественных заболеваний цингой встречались и среди мирного населения. Чаще они возникали в результате каких-либо стихийных бедствий и больше всего вследствие неурожая картофеля и отсутствия овощей.
Несмотря на все имеющиеся противоцинготные средства, долгое время считалось, что причиной возникновения цинги является какой-то яд, вносимый в организм с испорченной пищей и водой.
В. В. Пашутин (1845—1901), русский патофизиолог, в 1884 г. впервые высказал мнение, что цинга является одной из форм голодания и по своему характеру не похожа на калорийное и минерально-солевое голодание.
В своем обширном труде «Курс общей и экспериментальной патологии» он писал: «Скорбут развивается не вследствие чего-то аномального, находящегося в скорбутной пище и действующего токсически, а вследствие чего-то недостающего в данной пище».
Экспериментальное подтверждение этого научного предсказания последовало лишь в 1907 г., когда норвежские ученые Хольст и Фрелих, выявляя причину возникновения бери-бери среди норвежских моряков (корабельная бери-бери) и проводя соответствующие опыты на морских свинках, неожиданно получили не бери-бери, а цингу. Ими было доказано, что данное заболевание является комбинацией цинги и бери-бери. После этого открытия Хольст и Фрелих окончательно установили в 1912 г., что цинга является болезнью частичного голодания. Так научное предсказание В. В. Пашутина нашло свое подтверждение.

Гипо- и авитаминоз С

Недостаток витамина С в организме может возникнуть вследствие следующих причин: 1) при недостаточном содержании витамина С в пище, когда, например, в силу каких-либо обстоятельств приходится питаться консервированной пищей без употребления свежих овощей, а также в результате недостаточного и неправильного питания; 2) в случаях усиленного разрушения витамина С в желудочно-кишечном тракте при ряде заболеваний. Так, например, отсутствие в содержимом желудка свободной соляной кислоты создает повышенную щелочность кишечного содержимого, а это способствует быстрому окислению витамина С в желудочно-кишечном тракте; 3) при достаточном поступлении витамина С с пищей, хорошем усвоении его организмом, но при наличии повышенного потребления его, например во время инфекционных заболеваний.
В результате недостатка витамина С в организме у человека развиваются явления гиповитаминоза С: апатия, снижение работоспособности, сердцебиение, боли в ногах, кровоточивость десен, склонность к кариесу зубов, понижение сопротивляемости к инфекционным заболеваниям.

Авитаминоз С, или цинга, характеризуется четырьмя основными признаками: поражением десен, кровоизлиянием в кожу и мышцы, изменениями костей и суставов, малокровием. Поражение десен начинается с появления у их края синеватой каймы, кровоточивости. Затем образуются язвы с гнойным отделяемым. Появляется неприятный запах изо рта, боль при жевании, слюнотечение. Зубы расшатываются и выпадают.

На коже голеней, бедер, ягодиц появляется красная сыпь, представляющая мелкие кровоизлияния. На отдельных участках они сливаются в крупные кровоподтеки. В местах кровоизлияний в мышцы, суставы появляется болезненное припухание. Изменения со стороны костной системы приводят к возникновению плохо заживающих переломов. Иногда наблюдается резкое западение грудины вследствие поражения на границе между костной и хрящевой частью ребер.

vitamin_C (ascorbinovaya_kislota)

Профилактика

Организм человека нуждается в постоянном поступлении витамина С с пищей. Поэтому профилактика цинги заключается прежде всего в употреблении в пищу продуктов, богатых витамином С, главным образом свежих овощей, фруктов, ягод. Витамин С довольно широко распространен в растительном мире. Наиболее богаты им плоды шиповника, черная смородина, капуста, хрен, незрелые грецкие орехи, апельсины, лимоны, хвоя. Одним из важных источников витамина С является картофель, так как он потребляется в пищу большинством населения почти ежедневно и в значительном количестве.
Фрукты и овощи — не единственный источник витамина С в пище. В небольшом количестве он содержится и в продуктах животного происхождения — мозгах, почках, печени и пр. В качестве противоцинготного средства издавна применяли свежее недожаренное мясо.

Так, в 1889 г. на постройке Уральской железной дороги работало 500 татар и столько же русских. Русские рабочие страдали от цинги, а татары были здоровы. Объяснялось это тем, что русские ели мороженое мясо и испорченную капусту, в то время как татары ели свежую конину (лошади на постройке часто ломали себе ноги; искалеченных лошадей убивали, и татары охотно ели их мясо).
Необходимо помнить о том, что витамин С легко разрушается под действием высокой температуры, света, воздуха. Неправильное хранение продуктов, нерациональная кулинарная обработка ведут к обеднению их витамином С. Например, в щах из кислой капусты, простоявших в течение 3 часов на горячей плите при температуре 70—75°, сохраняется только 20% витамина С, а при варке в течение одного часа — 50%.

Суточная потребность взрослого человека в витамине С составляет 50—100 мг, детей до 7 лет — 30 — 35 мг, от 7 лет и старше — 50 мг. В 200 г капусты содержится 60 мг витамина С. Чтобы удовлетворить среднюю суточную потребность человека в витамине С, достаточно, например, 15—20 г черной смородины или 90 г зеленого лука.
С повышением физической нагрузки, во время беременности, кормления грудью, при различных заболеваниях потребность в витамине С, как и в других витаминах, возрастает.
При повышенной потребности организма в витамине С к пищевому рациону необходимо добавлять препараты витамина С, причем лучше в виде драже, так как в сиропе он менее устойчив.

По материалам научно-популярной брошюры Ефимова Н.И «Витамины и их значение для здорового человека»

Хорошее видео о витамине C!

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