Витамин РР (никотиновая кислота)

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vitamin_PPВитамин РР (читается ПП) — противопеллагрический, предотвращающий пеллагру — был открыт еще в 1867 г., но противопеллагрическое действие его было доказано лишь в 1937 г.Изучение химической природы противопеллагрического фактора показало, что он представляет никотиновую кислоту или ее амид.

Никотиновая кислота не ядовита и не имеет ничего общего с табачным ядом — никотином.
Гипо- и авитаминоз РР (пеллагра). В результате недостатка в пище витамина РР развивается заболевание, носящее название пеллагры. Пеллагра была известна человечеству еще в средние века, но первое подробное описание признаков ее дал в 1735 г. испанец Гаслар Казаль, врач Филиппа V.

В Италии пеллагра была описана Фраполли в 1771 г.; им же был введен термин «пеллагра» (по-итальянски «пеллеагра» — «шершавая кожа»). Пеллагра характеризуется тремя основными признаками, а именно: диарея (понос), дерматит (поражение кожи), деменция (нарушения со стороны психики).

В начале заболевания появляются головные боли, вялость, апатия, быстрая утомляемость, плохой аппетит. Больные жалуются также на чувство жжения во рту, болезненность при приеме горячей и острой пищи, слюнотечение. Слизистая рта краснеет, покрывается язвами, десна кровоточат, язык отекает, покрывается, трещинами, а в дальнейшем делается гладким, как бы «лакированным». По мере развития заболевания возникают характерные для него поражения кожи, расстройства функции желудочно-кишечного тракта, нарушения со стороны нервной системы. На коже, чаще открытых частей тела (лицо, шея, руки, ноги), появляются симметрично расположенные красные пятна. Краснота постепенно переходит в кирпично-красный или темно-бронзовый цвет. Кожа в области этих пятен отекает, покрывается пузырьками, заполненными жидкостью. Больной ощущает жжение и зуд. Пузырьки лопаются, образуются корки, трещины. В дальнейшем кожа в этих местах слущивается, истончается, пигментируется.

vitamin_PP (nikotinovaya_kislota)

Нарушения со стороны желудочно-кишечного тракта выражаются в появлении упорных поносов, сменяемых нередко запорами.
Наблюдается тошнота, рвота. Аппетит резко понижен, а иногда, наоборот, усилен.
Признаки поражения нервной системы отмечаются примерно у одной трети больных. Появляются звон в
ушах, головокружение, беспокойство, зрительные и слуховые галлюцинации, резкое снижение памяти. Характерно ослабление мышц нижних конечностей, сопровождаемое иногда судорогами. Лицо больного становится маскообразным, голова дрожит, походка делается шаткой и неуверенной. Пеллагра может длиться годами, давая то улучшение (чаще летом), то ухудшение (весной и осенью). В запу¬щенных случаях это заболевание может привести к смерти.

Профилактика

Предупреждение пеллагры не представляет каких-либо затруднений и заключается в употреблении в пищу продуктов, содержащих витамин PP. Витамином РР богаты пивные и пекарские дрожжи, мясо, печень, почки крупного рогатого скота, грибы, рыба (сельдь, лососина),пшеница, гречиха. Витамин РР содержится также в моркови, томатах, яйцах, картофеле, ржаном хлебе, горохе. Молоко и молочные продукты мало содержат никотиновой кислоты, но богаты триптофаном, который в организме переходит в никотиновую кислоту. Витамин РР сравнительно стоек: он не разрушается при варке, воздействии света, при обычных методах консервации. Суточная потребность человека в витамине РР — 15—25 мг.

По материалам научно-популярной брошюры Ефимова Н.И «Витамины и их значение для здорового человека»

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